Everything you need to know about migraine: Causes, treatment, types, and symptoms

What is Migraine

Migraine is a neurological condition with many symptoms that may vary among peoples. We recognize migraine as a severe headache. many symptoms like vomiting, nausea, sensitivity to light and sound, restlessness. Migraines can affect people of all ages.

Migraine attack at any age group. women have more chances to get affected by migraines than men. Family history is also the main factor that can cause migraines.

Migraine is different in many forms than normal headache. Migraine attacks can be very serious and can last for 3 to 5 days.

Types of Migraine

  • Migraine with Aura (Complicated Migraine)

Migraine with aura has symptoms like visual disturbance, severe headache, nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.

This aura migraine usually occurs within 1 hour before the headache starts, and usually takes less than 60 minutes.

Cause of Migraine

The cause of migraines with aura is not understood. There is evidence that migraine with an aura, like that of a chemical wave that passes through the part of the brain and causes visual hallucinations.

Many of the factors that are the root cause of the headaches, can also lead to migraines with aura, including stress, bright lights, certain foods and medicines, too little or too much sleep, and the menstrual cycle.

  • Migraine without Aura (Common Migraine)
  • Hemiplegic Migraine

Hemiplegic migraines are affecting a very small number of people in the United States of America. People with hemiplegic migraine attacks also experience paralysis or weakness on one side of the body, impaired speech, and vision.

The paralysis is usually temporary but can last for several days.

Forms of hemiplegic migraine

Familial hemiplegic migraine (FGM). FHM is a genetic migraine condition that causes hemiplegic migraines. In a genetic study to determine if a gene mutation associates with a migraine headache remedy. If one of your parents or a brother or a sister has had FGM, then you are more likely to have FGM.

Sporadic hemiplegic migraine. SM relates to hemiplegic migraine, which occurs in people without a genetic condition and FGM. Both in the FHM and SHM, you’ve experienced the symptoms of hemiplegic migraine, many times.

Retinal Migraine

A retinal migraine is a rare form of headache that is characterized by the repeated cases of visual disturbances, such as dead eyes, or being blind to one side of the visual field.

These conditions generally last from one minute up to one hour and usually occur before the headache starts.

Ice Pick Headaches

Ice pick headache is a painful, severe headache that occurs . They are often referred to as the sensation of a sharp blow or series of blows with an ice pick. Do not warn about it, and they can be painful and debilitating. They are of short duration, usually not more than a minute.

Ice pick headaches can occur at any time during the period of sleep or wakefulness. They may occur several times during the day, and move it from one place to another in the head with it.

Cluster Headaches

Cluster headaches are a series of short but very painful headaches everyday for a few weeks or a few months. As a rule, you’ll get them at the same time, every year, for example, in the spring or in the fall. Because of this, people are often wrong, cluster headaches, for any signs of allergy or stress in the workplace.

The Experts don’t know exactly what the cause is, but a nerve of the face is affected, causing severe pain around the eyes. It is a fact that most of the people who can’t sit still and walk around during the attack. A Cluster headache can be worse than a migraine, but they don’t usually take that long.

Abdominal headache

An abdominal migraine is not a headache. As their name suggests, they’re in a place to make your stomach ache. But, they often occur as a response to the same triggers a migraine. They can be a serious harm and can lead to nausea, seizures, and often vomiting.

Children and other family members who suffer from migraines are more likely to suffer from abdominal pain, migraine headache,. the children who are suffering from chronic pain in the lower abdomen, up to 15% may suffer from abdominal pain, and migraine. The girls are more than boys.

Some common causes and triggers

We don’t know the exact cause of action. One theory is that changes in the levels of two chemicals that your body produces are histamine, and serotonin, which are responsible for this. Experts are of the opinion that the reluctance or fear, can have an impact on them.

Food, chocolate, food with MSG, and processed meats with nitrites can lead to abdominal pain, and migraine in some people.

Ingestion of large quantities of air may be the cause, and like other abdominal symptoms. This can lead to a feeling of bloating and eating disorders.

Symptoms of Migraine

  • Headache which may differ from position
  • Seeing bright flashing dots, sparkles, or lights.
  • Blind spots in your vision.
  • Numb or tingling skin.
  • Speech changes.
  • Ringing in your ears (tinnitus).
  • Temporary vision loss.
  • Seeing wavy or jagged lines.
  • Changes in smell or taste.
  • Sensitivity to light, noise, and odors.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Feeling very warm (sweating) or cold (chills).
  • Feeling tired.
  • Dizziness and blurred vision.

How to diagnose Migraine?

If you have a family history of migraines or any suffering from any kind of headache or any above symptoms.

You can visit a neurologist (doctor of the brain and nervous system) for a quick diagnosis such as, 

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

This uses a powerful magnetic field and radio waves to produce detailed images of the brain and blood vessels.

This helps doctors diagnose tumours, strokes, bleeding in the brain, infections, and other brain and nervous systems.

CT scan (Computed tomography)

This uses a series of X-rays to create detailed cross-sectional images of the brain.

It helps doctors diagnose tumours, infections, brain damage, bleeding in the brain. 

Migraine attack

A migraine can cause severe extreme pain or a pulsing sensation, most on one side of the head. Nausea, vomiting, and extreme sensitivity to light and sound. Migraine attacks can last for hours to days.

Headache Vs Migraine

Headache

Headache refers to conditions that cause pain in the head, face, or neck. Headache can be a result of stress, an infection, or overuse of medicines.

Stress Headache

Stress headaches are common headaches that affect around 45 percent of adults worldwide.

Doctors classify Stress headaches as episodic or chronic. Episodic headaches happen when migraines attack between 10 and 15 days per month. Chronic headaches occur more often and may cause dryness in the scalp.

Some factors that may cause stress headache

  • Hunger
  • Sleeplessness
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Arthritis
  • Bad posture
  • Stress

Cluster headaches

Cluster headaches cause severe pain on one side of the head, often behind the eye. These headaches come in clusters, meaning headaches occur at the same time daily.

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), these headaches last 6 to 12 weeks.

Some factors that may cause stress headache

  • Severe pain on one side of the head
  • Pain behind the eye
  • Red, watery eyes

Migraine

Headaches are only one symptom of migraine attack, and they can range in intensity. Headache in migraine can last from a few hours to several days.

Migraine headaches affect only one side of the head, but sometimes both side pain is also seen.

A migraine occurs in four distinct phases, not everyone experiences every phase. 

First Phase or Premonitory phase

Doctors call the premonitory phase the pre headache phase. It includes non painful symptoms like,

  • food cravings
  • stiffness of the neck
  • frequent yawning
  • constipation or diarrhea
  • sensitivity to light, sound, or smells

Second Phase or Aura Phase

Aura refers to sensory disturbances that occur during a migraine attack. Auras affect vision, touch, or speech.

Some symptoms of Aura Phase

  • flashing lights
  • zig-zagging lines
  • blurred vision
  • blind spots that expand over time
  • jumbled speech
  • difficulty in understanding
  • difficulty in writing
  • trouble in thinking

Third phase or Headache phase

These headaches can range from mild to severe. People having severe migraine headaches may need to seek emergency medical treatment.

Any type of physical activity or exposure to light, sound, and smells can increase the pain.

Last Phase or Postdrome Phase

This phase occurs after the headache subsides. People may feel exhausted, confused, or generally unwell during the postdrome phase. 

Causes of Migraine

  • stress
  • drink
  • hormonal imbalances in women
  • sleeping disorder
  •  physical condition
  • atmospheric changes
  • family history
  • medications

How to relief from Migraine

  • Apply a hot or cold compress. Place the compress across your forehead or the back of your neck.
  • Rest in a silent, dark room
  • Stay hydrated
  • Do meditation
  • Smell natural flowers sp. lavender
  • massage your temples
  • drink caffeinated beverage

Migraine Surgery

Nerve Decompression

A process in which the surgeon removes tissue that puts pressure on sensory nerves which is a trigger point for migraines.

Neurectomy

A surgeon cuts a nerve in your head which is identified as contributing to migraines.

Migraine and Pregnancy

In women, the main trigger point is the level of hormones, particularly the rise and fall of estrogen.

Pregnant mothers getting a migraine attack often during their first trimester.

Some specific symptoms

  • Vomiting
  • Sensitivity to sound, smell, and light
  • Change of taste
  • Restlessness 

During pregnancy, you need to keep a note on –

  • The time your headache started and ended
  • Food and beverages you had during the 24 hours before the migraine
  • Any change in your environment, such as traveling to a new place, a change in weather, or trying new kinds of food
  • Any treatment you tried, and whether it helped or made the headache worse

When to visit Doctor

  • If you experience the worst headache
  • Weakness, dizziness, sudden loss of balance or can’t move your body
  • The trouble with speech, confusion, seizures, personality changes
  • Blurry vision, double vision, or blind spots
  • Fever, breathlessness
  • If you experience any of the above symptoms, you need immediate medical help.

How can we prevent migraines?

Lifestyle changes

Your daily habits may help you with less, the more severe the migraine. Some of the things that can help are 

Sleep Go to bed and get up around the same time every day, even on weekends and public holidays. When you go to bed, too little or too much sleep can be the cause of a headache. 

Excessive exercise can cause headaches in some people, but research has shown that regular, moderate aerobic exercise, can lead to migraines, to be short, to be less severe and occur less often and for a lot of people, as well. It also helps to control stress, a different point of view.

Eat regular meals. Lowering your blood sugar levels can lead to headaches, so be sure it’s stable and if you don’t have enough food to eat. Also, Drink plenty of water to avoid dehydration, which can lead to a headache.

The limit pressure Stress is a normal crochet. So, please take some time to relax each day. You can 

  • Have a listen to some soothing music.
  • A little bit of a walk.
  • Meditate.
  • Do Yoga.

Try to do it. Along with the treatment, you could try one of these is to aid in the prevention of migraine headaches, for example

  • Acupuncture in the treatment of
  • Massage
  • Conversation therapy

Foods to avoid during Migraine

  • Daily products
  • Tomatoes
  • Alcohol
  • Onions
  • Wheat products
  • Fruits with vitamin C

These foods may trigger your migraine, so you need to avoid them.

Conclusion

Migraine is much more than a normal headache. Migraines may cause many critical health conditions. One should try to avoid the things that can trigger the points of migraine. Especially if you have any family history of having migraines then you need to take care of yourself more. Avoid migraine triggers, do meditation, perform yoga, go for a long walk, try to be natural to avoid migraine. Avoid excess medication as it can turn on your migraine. Finding triggers can help you to reduce the frequency of episodes of migraine.Medication and treatment help manage migraine and its symptoms.Migraine can turn into many risky health conditions so you need to visit a doctor whenever necessary.

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