Dengue Fever: Symptoms, Treatment, Causes

Dengue fever is found in over 150 nations, with over 40 percent of the global population living in at-risk locations.

Dengue fever is a virus transmitted by dengue mosquitos. By four viral strains that are closely linked to one another causes Dengue.

 It is the world’s fastest-growing viral illness transmitted by mosquitos.

What is Dengue

Almost half of the world’s population is at risk of dengue.

A dengue mosquito bite causes dengue fever.

It is caused when the Aedes mosquito bites and transfers virus to a healthy person.

Dengue fever, often known as break-bone fever is alike illness of flu.

Affected by the Dengue virus.

This illness is primarily prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas of the globe. Each year, the WHO estimates that 500,000 individuals require hospitalization.

  • Dengue fever has become much more common throughout the world in recent decades. Approximately half of the world’s population is currently endangered.
  •  Although there is no particular cure for dengue/severe dengue, early identification and adequate medical care reduce mortality rates to less than 1%.

• In several Asian and Latin American nations, severe dengue fever is a significant cause of serious illness and death among children.

  •  Chikungunya, yellow fever, and Zika are all transmitted by this insect. Dengue fever is found throughout the tropics, with risk levels varying depending on rainfall, temperature, and unplanned fast urbanization.

• Dengue virus is the name of the virus that causes dengue fever (DEN)

There are four DENV serotypes, which means you can get infected four times. In several Asian and Latin American nations, severe dengue fever is a significant cause of serious illness and death. It needs the intervention of medical specialists.

 Mosquitoes can be infected by DENV-positive humans.

 This can include those who have asymptomatic dengue infection, persons who have yet to develop symptoms (pre-symptomatic), and people who exhibit no indications of disease (they are asymptomatic).

Human-to-mosquito transmission might take place up to two days before symptoms appear.

Mosquito vectors are the major route of transmission of DENV between people.

There is, nevertheless, evidence that maternal transfer can occur (from a pregnant mother to her baby.)

Despite the fact that vertical transmission rates appear to be modest.

Dengue fever is characterized by a high temperature and flu-like symptoms.

 Dengue hemorrhagic fever, a severe dengue fever, can result in significant bleeding, a decrease in blood pressure (shock), and death.

Dengue fever does not transmit from one person to another. It’s widespread in hot, humid climates across the world. Outbreaks are more common during the wet season.

A high temperature, headache, vomiting, muscular and joint aches, and a distinctive skin rash are all possible symptoms of dengue fever.

You’ll be immune to dengue fever for the rest of your life if you’ve been infected with one of the viruses

What can causes dengue

DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4 are the four viruses that causes dengue fever.

 When a mosquito bites an already infected person, the virus enters the mosquito. When it bites a healthy individual, the virus travels via their circulation, causes dengue disease to spread.

Once a person recovers, he is immune to that particular virus but not to the other three.

 If you have Dengue fever a second, third, or fourth time, your chances of having severe Dengue fever, commonly known as Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever, rise.

What are symptoms of dengue

Dengue fever symptoms are often misdiagnosed in teenagers and adolescents as a simple fever. Dengue fever is characterized by the temperature of 104 degrees Fahrenheit, as well as at least two of the following symptoms:

  • Headache
  • Pain in the muscles, bones, and joints
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Back of the eyes ache
  • glands swollen
  • Rash

Early fever of dengue fever, headache, and body paints are not unique to dengue it might be difficult to diagnose.

Dengue fever symptoms can be mistaken as influenza, typhoid, Zika virus, or malaria.

Dengue fever can be affected by anyone among four types of viruses.

A dengue infection does not protect you from infection in the future. The symptoms of dengue fever are often more severe the second time around.

Dengue fever symptoms usually last 2–7 days. After roughly a week, the majority of folks will be back to normal.

When your blood vessels become damaged and leaky, you get severe dengue fever.

In addition, the amount of platelets (clot-forming cells) in your circulation decreases. Shock, internal hemorrhage, organ failure, and even death might result.

Severe dengue fever, which is a life-threatening illness, has warning signals that appear fast.

The warning of dengue fever symptoms generally appear during the first two days or so after your fever has subsided, and include:

  • stomach pains that are severe
  • Constant vomiting
  • Experiencing bleeding from your gums or nose
  • You may see blood in your urine, faeces, or vomit.
  • Under-the-skin bleeding that seems to be bruising
  • Breathing that is difficult or fast
  • Fatigue
  • Irritability or agitation

What are types of dengue

  • DENV-1
  • DENV-2
  • DENV-3
  • DENV-4

 are the four serotypes of dengue viruses that are transferred from one person to another person by the bite of a dengue mosquito.

Here is some explanations of types of dengue or stages of dengue fever.

Stage I: This is the stage where you have an acute fever. (Days 1–5) The patients are experiencing a high temperature (39-40 degrees Celsius) as well as hurting, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Antipyretics, such as paracetamol, are helpful for lowering body temperature and preventing fluid loss.

Stage 2: This is the critical stage. (Days 5-7) When the body temperature drops, the plasma (fluid part of the blood component) leaks and the blood pressure drops (usually within 24 hours).

Stage 3: The third stage is the period of recovery. It takes a few days for the patients to return to their previous state. Patients will regain their appetite (A), have a slower pulse rate (Bradycardia=B), develop a convalescent rash on their legs and arms (C), and pass more water (Diuresis=D) during this period. These steps are abbreviated as A-B-C-D.

Stage 4: This stage is a state of shock in which blood pressure and pulse cannot be measured.

Types of dengue fever:

  • Mild Dengue Fever
  • Dengue Haemorrhagic fever
  • Dengue Shock Syndrome

How to treat Dengue

Dengue fever does not have a specific therapy to treat dengue.

If you have dengue fever symptoms, consider chloral hydrate pain treatments and avoid aspirin-based medications, which may cause bleeding.

Drink plenty of water while recuperating from dengue illness to treat dengue.

If you see any of the following signs or dengue fever symptoms of dehydration, contact your doctor straight away:

  • Urination is less frequent.
  • There are little or no tears.
  • Lips or mouth that are dry.
  • Lethargy or befuddlement.
  • Extremities that are cold or clammy.

Acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) is an over-the-counter (OTC) medicine that can aid with muscle discomfort and fever. Other OTC pain medicines, such as aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, and others), and naproxen sodium, should be avoided to treat dengue if you have dengue fever (Aleve).

 Dengue fever bleeding problems can be exacerbated by certain pain medications.

If you have severe dengue fever, you may require the following treatments:

  • In a hospital, supportive care
  • Fluid and electrolyte replacement by intravenous (IV)
  • Monitoring of blood pressure
  • Blood transfusions are used to restore lost blood.

This is generally enough to effectively treat the condition if started early.

Doctors may need to perform a blood transfusion in more advanced situations.

Doctors would inject intravenous (IV) fluids and electrolytes (salts) to replace those lost through vomiting or diarrhoea in severe dengue fever sufferers treated in a hospital.

If you begin to feel worse during the first 24 hours after your fever has subsided, you should seek medical attention right once.

Attempts should be taken to keep the afflicted person from being bitten by  dengue mosquitoes in all cases of dengue infection.

This will aid in the prevention of the disease spreading to others.

How to prevent dengue

You must take precautions and be aware of the several types of Dengue infections that might occur.

Only then will you be ready to defend yourself against such situations to prevent dengue.

Dengue causes usually transferred or spread via the bite of a female Aedes dengue mosquito infected with the virus.

The most critical step in preventing dengue mosquito spread is to eliminate mosquito breeding sites. Dengue mosquitoes breed in stagnant or motionless water, such as buckets, unused pools, vessels, flower pots, and clogged sewers, among other places.

As a result, you must always keep an eye on moist places in your home and remove all sources of standing water on a regular basis.

In addition, to prevent dengue, you should never allow wet garbage to accumulate near your home.

The biological habitats of dengue mosquitos will be eliminated or destroyed if these actions are implemented.

Because limiting mosquito habitat and keeping your surroundings clean go hand in hand, this suggestion is an extension of the previous one.

To prevent dengue mosquito breeding in the first place, you must not only destroy mosquito habitat but also attempt to keep your surroundings clean. Cover your toilet bowls and trash cans at all times.

Mosquitoes are known for preferring damp, gloomy environments. As a result, you must have your home filled with streaming sunlight to prevent these viruses from mating with dengue mosquitoes. If necessary, mosquito screens can also be kept on hand.

And also, you must ensure that all doors and windows are closed when sleeping to avoid mosquito infestation can prevent you from types of dengue fever.

Camphor smoke has the potential to destroy pests that carry diseases, therefore you can ignite it at home on alternate days for around 20-25 minutes can help you to prevent dengue.

Dengue fever is especially common in tropical and sub-tropical areas during the monsoon season when the weather is humid.

As a result, scheduling your day out or any excursion during the rainy season will almost certainly raise your risk of contracting dengue fever.

When visiting cities or areas where dengue fever is a risk, you must decide the level of protection required and can even bring preventive drugs with you.

This is the simplest and most crucial preventive dengue precaution you can take to avoid contracting dengue fever.

To cover every inch of your body, you must wear fully covered clothing such as full-length sleeves or pants to treat dengue.

This will reduce the amount of exposed skin on your body. As a result, your garments will act as an outer sheath, shielding you from the mosquito invasion and ultimately keeping you safe and you prevent dengue.

Dengue vaccine

In some countries, a dengue vaccine (Dengvaxia) is licensed and accessible for people aged 9 to 45.

The dengue vaccine should only be administered to people who have had a verified past dengue virus infection, according to the World Health Organization.

CYD-TDV was the first licenced dengue vaccine.

 A dengue vaccine was first approved in Mexico in December 2015 for use in people aged 9 to 45 who live in endemic areas, and it has since been approved in 20 countries.

Sanofi Pasteur developed CYD-TDV, a live recombinant tetravalent dengue vaccine that is given in a three-dose series every 0/6/12 months.

The European Medicines Agency accepted the file package for dengue vaccine candidate TAK-003, which is intended for those who have never been affected, in March 2021.

Other dengue vaccine possibilities are being developed, such as live attenuated, inactivated, DNA, and subunit vaccinations.

FAQ

1. What is dengue fever ?

Dengue (DENG-gey) fever is a mosquito-borne sickness that occurs worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions. Mild dengue fever is characterized by a high fever and flu-like symptoms.

2. What are dengue fever symptoms?

The most common of dengue fever symptoms, which might be associated by any of the following:

Vomiting and nausea, Rash., Pains and aches (eye pain, typically behind the eyes, muscle, joint, or bone pain), or any kind of warning indicator.

3. What can causes dengue ?

 Dengue fever is caused by one of four kinds of dengue viruses. You cannot contract dengue fever just by being in the presence of an infected person. Dengue fever is instead transmitted by mosquito bite

4. How many days the dengue fever lasts ?

     Commonly people can recover in about a week, fever can be last long to 2 days to week.

5. What is the dengue mosquito called?

       Dengue virus is transported and spread by mosquitos of the genus Aedes, which contains several species. The principal vector of the dengue virus is the Aedes aegypti mosquito.

6. How to treat dengue ?

To treat dengue, Patients need to get masses of relaxation and drink masses of fluids. Take oral rehydration salts if they’re available. Paracetamol which includes Panadol may be taken to carry down fever and decrease joint pains. DO NOT take aspirin or ibuprofen or some other ache medication without checking with a doctor.

7. What are types of dengue fever ?

Types of dengue fever is divided into three types: mild dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome. Mild Dengue Fever is the most frequent type of Dengue and is not lethal.

Conclusion

Prevention is better than cure. Keep clean in the water area as much as possible. Avoid going out in the rainy season unnecessary. Get possible options to get away from mosquitos. Wear clothes that cover your body. If any dengue fever symptoms show on you, call your doctor to treat dengue.

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